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The Map Archive is your one-stop solution for buying Ancient Egypt maps online. We have a range of thematic Ancient Egyptian maps that tell the story of Ancient Egyptian civilization graphically. One of the oldest civilizations in the Ancient Middle East, the first capital of Ancient Egypt was founded at Memphis c. 3100 BCE by King Menes. The annual flooding, or inundation, of the mighty River Nile fed and sustained Egyptian civilization. The rulers of the Old Kingdom (c. 2686–2181 BCE), Khufu (Cheops), Khafre, and Menkaure, built funerary monuments, or pyramids, at Giza (near Cairo). This was a period of peace and stability, succeeded by the First Intermediate Period when Egypt was ruled by two different kingdoms. Stability returned with the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055–1786 BCE), initiated by Amenemhet (Amenhemhat) I, founder of the 12th Dynasty. A further unsettled period, the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1786–1567 BCE) ensued, and Egypt was once again reunited under Ahmose I, the founder of the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom. A succession of powerful pharaohs included Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Amenhotep III, Ramesses II, Thutmose II. New Kingdom rulers were buried in the Valley of the Kings, opposite the city of Thebes, where the famous tomb of Tutankhamen was discovered. The Third Intermediate Period (c. 1085–664 BCE) saw conflict with Nubia to Egypt’s south and a dynasty of Nubian pharaohs. Egypt was reunified under the Saite dynasty, but was conquered by the Persian Empire (525 BCE) and, eventually, the Macedonian ruler, Alexander the Great (332 BCE).
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