Teaching Resources

Our latest service for subscribers only is a series of detailed articles, liberally illustrated with maps, which can be used as teaching aids. They will allow students to explore specific subjects in some depth and can be downloaded as pdfs (see bottom of page for pdf download) and printed out in hard copy as handouts.

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The Rise of the Nazis

Average read time 10 minutes Following the armistice on 11 November 1918, 32 representatives of 32 countries convened at Versailles in 1919 to draw up a peace settlement after World War I. In practice, the ultimate arbiters were the US, France and Britain and, to a lesser extent, Italy. Apart from the centrepiece Treaty of […]

Irish Independence and the Troubles

Average read time 10 minutes The 1801 Act of Union was a legislative agreement united Great Britain with Ireland, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It was enacted at a time when Britain was at war with Napoleonic France, and there were anxieties that rebellion might be fomented in Ireland, or that […]

Slavery in the United States

Average read 15 minutes Although the trans-Atlantic trade was perhaps the dominant element in the slave trade worldwide, slavery was widely practised internally within Africa, and the Ottoman Empire and Asia also represented major markets. The Portuguese engaged in the Atlantic slave trade as early as the 16th century, and other Europeans soon followed, setting […]

The Thirty Years’ War 1640–48

Average read 5 minutes This cataclysmic war, fought mainly in Central Europe, led to some eight million deaths, and caused widespread devastation and displacement. Its origins lie in the Holy Roman Emperor’s ambitions to reassert Catholic hegemony over the Protestants within his empire, but the war was not fought on exclusively religious grounds – many […]

Roman Britain 55 BCE–410 CE

Average read time 10 minutes Julius Caesar invaded Britain (Britannia) in 55 BCE (and again the following year) where he received tribute and subdued the Trinovantes. After this, he returned to his conquests in Gaul, and sent reports home of a misty, wild country, inhabited by fierce, blue-painted warriors. The Roman Conquest Britain was not […]

The Celts

Average read time 10 minutes The Celts, named Keltoi (barbarians) by the Greeks, were a cultural group that occupied much of Europe north of the Alps, and eventually spread as far as Portugal in the west and Anatolia in the east. Although these tribes were very diverse they spoke the same language and maintained a common artistic […]

The Russian Revolution 1917–21

Average read 5 minutes The events in Petrograd in 1917 that launched the Russian Revolution had the benefit of a full-dress rehearsal. In 1905, a series of famines and military humiliation in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) led to revolution, including the first emergence of the Petrograd Soviet (a council formed of radical representatives of soldiers […]

Anglo Saxon England c. 410–1066

Average read 15 mins By 410 CE, the Roman Empire had begun to crumble and Britain, at its periphery, began to come under increased threat from marauding tribes. Troops and money could not be spared to defend Britain from the increasingly frequent raids by Picts and Scoti in the north and seaborne raids from Saxons […]

The Hundred Years’ War 1337–1453

Average read 10 mins The Plantagenet king of England, Edward III, held a claim to the French throne after the death of his uncle Charles IV, the Capetian king of France, in 1328. He was opposed by Philip VI, Charles’s cousin, of the House of Valois, and both the English Plantagenets and the French House […]

The English Civil War and its Aftermath 1642–60

Average read 10 minutes By 1642 the unpopularity of King Charles I was palpable. He was nearly bankrupt and desperate to hold on to his authority. Parliament’s lack of support for his attempt to raise revenues through unpopular taxes had led to its dismissal in 1629; he had ruled without a parliament for eleven years, […]