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THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

The Map Archive is your one-stop solution for buying US Civil War maps online. The American Civil War (1861–65), or US Civil War, or War Between the States, began in 1861 after decades of tension over slavery, states’ rights and western expansion. When Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the US in 1860 the southern states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America, reacting against abolitionist sentiment in the North.

In March 1861 Confederate artillery fired the first shots of the Civil War at Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Although the 23 states of the Union held the advantage in terms of population, manufacturing and armaments, the Confederates had a strong military tradition. The war that ensued was very costly: some 620,000 of the 2.4 million soldiers involved were killed. Famous Civil War generals include ‘Stonewall’ Jackson, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, William Sherman, George B. McClellan, Ambrose E. Burnside. Famous battles include the First Battle of Bull Run (or First Manassas), Antietam (Sharpsburg), Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Vicksburg, Chattanooga. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation (1863-4) freed all enslaved people in the rebellious states, depriving the Confederacy of its labour forces.

In Autumn 1864 Sherman’s ‘March to the Sea’ and the Union siege of Petersburg and Richmond left the Confederacy shattered. Grant accepted Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Court House on 9 April. On 14 April Confederate sympathiser John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Lincoln at Ford’s Theatre in Washington. The war finally ended on 26 April 1865.

 

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