After the Western Roman Empire fell at the beginning of the 5th century, a period of fluctuating migration and warring between tribes in the former Roman lands began. The Vandals, who originated in Scandinavia, were pushed into North Africa by an alliance of Romans and Visigoths after a reign of destruction in Spain. They established an empire there and enjoyed a period of naval dominance in the western Mediterranean, even pillaging Rome in 455 CE, before eventually being defeated by the Byzantine Empire in 534 CE. The Visigothic Kingdom was created in southern Gaul after the Romans allowed them to keep land in an attempt to combat the spread of the Franks. After pushing the Vandals out of the Iberian Peninsula, the Visigoths became a powerful force in the region, removing the last Roman territory in Hispania by 472 CE. They eventually lost the southern part of the peninsula to the Byzantines in 554 CE.
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