Charles V became Holy Roman Emperor in 1506 at the age of six, ruling until 1515 through the regency of his aunt, Margaret of Austria. The empire soon became embroiled in war with France, with one issue being Charles’s requirement for the provinces of Flanders, Artois, and Tournai to pay homage. Through the Treaty of Cambrai, (1529), France formally ceded their claims to these territories. Between 1515 and 1523, the Friesian Peasants’ Revolt engulfed the northern Netherlands. The revolt was eventually crushed, Friesland was absorbed into the empire, and its leader, Stadtholder van Toutenburg became Charles’s main general in the Netherlands, ranged against the duke of Gelders. In a series of campaigns, van Toutenburg captured Overijssel and Utrecht (Treaty of Gorinchem, 1528), Groningen and Drenthe (Treaty of Grave, 1536) and Zutphen and Gelders itself (Treaty of Venlo, 1543). The 17 provinces were now united under Charles V.
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