Although Thutmose I (c. 1493 BCE) successfully thwarted Syrian resistance in the Phoenician north, the conquered rulers only briefly paid tribute to him as their pharaoh. His grandson, Thutmose III (1482-25 BCE), was determined to restore Egyptian hegemony in Canaan and Phoenicia. Considered a military genius, not only did Thumose III annex much of Nubia, but he made several incursions into Syria, turning the coastal towns into Egyptian supply bases. In the Year 22 campaign, he razed the fortified town of Megiddo, taking his enemies by surprise. They underestimated Thutmose III, assuming that he would not approach via the dangerous Aruna mountain pass. After further victories in his 26th and 27th years, he crossed the Euphrates in his 33rd year. After sacking the Phoenician north, he now controlled the whole of Syria. His use of light chariots and hostage-taking contributed to his victories.
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