Roman Provincial Development 50–410 CE

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Map Code: Ax01738

Julius Caesar invaded Britain (Britannia) in 54 BCE where he received tribute and subdued the Trinovantes. After this, he returned to his conquests in Gaul. In 43 CE, the Emperor Claudius despatched four legions to conquer Britain. After General Vespasian and his legion successfully routed the British, Claudius entered Colchester (a Celtic stronghold) where he built a fortress, several temples and erected a statue of himself. Camulodounum (its Roman name) served as provincial Roman capital of Britannia until Boudicca’s rebellion in 61 CE, when it was replaced by London. By the 3rd century CE, Roman Britain comprised Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior, with York (which the Romans called ‘Eboracum’) serving as Britannia Inferior’s capital. By the early 4th century, Britannia (modern England and Wales) was four provinces: Prima, Secunda, Maxima Caesariensis and Flavia Caesariensis, with Lincoln and Chichester as additional provincial capitals. London also became Roman Britain’s first diocese (administrative capital).

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