The Vikings began raiding Ireland in the late 8th century, but without establishing much in the way of permanent footholds until the rise of the Norse Dynasty of Ivar in the 860s. The dynasty’s progenitor is believed to be Ivar the Boneless, conqueror of York. The Norse dominions were loose-knit, extending at various times over much of the Irish east coast, southern Scotland and Wales, Cumbria and Northumberland. After being expelled from Dublin in 902, Ivar’s grandsons, Ragnall and Sitric, returned in force in 917 with Ragnall destroying a rival Viking fleet off the Isle of Man en route. A fellow refugee from Dublin, Hingamund, went on to conquer Anglesey, before being driven out to settle in the Wirral peninsula. Much later, Harold Godwinson was exiled to Ireland with his father in 1051, before returning to England and his eventual day of reckoning at Hastings.
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