There was a change in the European power balances in the 17th century, with the ground-breaking first colonizers from Iberia becoming increasingly outrivalled by the maritime powers of France, England and the Dutch. France under Louis XIV was also Europe’s dominant terrestrial power, but would soon be humbled, with its ally Spain, in the war of the Spanish Succession (1702–15). In the Baltic, Russia would eclipse Sweden after decisive victory in the Great Northern War (1700–21). By the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699), Habsburg Austria became the dominant power in southeastern Europe: the Ottoman Empire was now in irrevocable decline. The Mughals were experiencing a late resurgence under Aurangzeb, but his divisive rule would trigger collapse after his death (1707). China was experiencing the High Qing apogee of stability and prosperity under its longest reigning emperor, while the Safavids of Persia would shortly be unseated by Afghan invasion.
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