Following the initial crusade against the heretical Cathars in southwest France, the northern baron Simon of Montfort had been awarded substantial territory as a reward for taking up arms against them. In 1213 Peter II of Aragon, who was a Catholic, intervened because he was alarmed by de Montfort’s growing power. A confrontation took place at Toulouse and then Muret on 12 September 1213. This was the last major battle of the so-called Albigensian Crusade. Although de Montfort was hugely outnumbered, he proved himself a vastly superior military commander and Peter was killed and Count Raymond of Toulouse was forced to flee. De Montfort was left with the task of brutally suppress the Cathars. A series of revolts between 1215–25 resulted in the Cathars temporarily regaining their lands and it was not until 1226 that King Louis of France was able to subdue the region and effectively suppress the heresy.
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