Saladin, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, assembled a large empire that engirdled the crusader kingdom of Jerusalem. In 1187, exasperated by the constant marauding of Reynald de Chatillon, Lord of Oultrejordain, he marched an army of 20,000 through the Horns of Hattin to Tiberias. In response, the perpetually fractious crusaders, sinking their differences, gathered an army of similar size under their king, Guy de Lusignan. When Saladin took the town of Tiberias, the crusaders, rather than awaiting him at their well-watered encampment, decided to confront Saladin in the arid basaltic plateau, north of the Sea of Galilee. Here, at the Horns of Hattin and close to the village of Maskana, they were surrounded. The crusaders fought with grim determination before being overwhelmed on 4 July. All crusader leaders were captured, except Raymond of Tripoli. The captives were treated civilly, bar Reynald, who Saladin personally beheaded.
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