The Roman conquest of Britain reached its high watermark with victory over the Picts at Mons Graupius (84), thought to be somewhere near Aberdeen. Thereafter the northern border would be marked first by Hadrian’s Wall (121–22) then the Antonine Wall (142–44). The Brigantes of northern England would rebel, and the Picts broke through Hadrian’s Wall (180), but after Emperor Septimus Severus’s Scottish campaigns (209–11) a long period of peace ensued. By the 2nd century, Britain was an important province (as witnessed by repeated imperial visits) with substantial cross-channel trade. The capital and major commercial centre was Londinium, with first-rate roads radiating to regional centres at Eboracum, Lindum, Glevum and Camulodunum (each of which housed retirement ‘colonae’ for Roman veterans). A romanized British aristocracy developed, with Roman citizenship normally awarded in exchange for loyal military service. In 212, by the Edict of Caracalla, citizenship was extended to everyone but slaves and ex-slaves.
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