After World War I, the territories of Germany and the Ottoman Empire were reclassified as mandates and allocated to leading powers, which would oversee their administration until the mandate was deemed able to run itself. From the former territories of the Ottoman Empire, France was entrusted with control of the mandate for Syria and Lebanon, which suffered numerous revolts, whilst Britain was entrusted the mandate of Palestine. This nominally included Transjordan although it was given greater autonomy as the Emirate of Transjordan and was excluded from the area that was allocated to form a Jewish homeland. The planned British Mandate for Mesopotamia was abandoned after an Iraqi revolt in May 1920 led to the formation of the kingdom of Iraq in August 1921. Under the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of October 1922, Iraq’s military and economic affairs came under the control of Britain to bring stability to the kingdom. The mandate system was frequently criticized as simply being a rebranded form of colonialism.
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