In 1654 the English Commonwealth under Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell, ran the Scottish parliament. Scottish banditry and Royalist uprisings needed to be suppressed and a programme of citadel and fort building was implemented in 1654. General George Monck became governor and his remit was Scottish compliance with Commonwealth rule (Monck’s Campaign). This included suppressing uprisings, such as the Royalist revolt at Glen Cairns (1653–54), and systematically devastating the Highlands, whilst occupying, pillaging and looting Royalist strongholds. After the Commonwealth was dissolved in 1659 and Charles II was restored to the throne (1660), there was a lull in hostilities. When Protestant William of Orange ousted the Catholic king, James II, from the throne in 1689, Scotland became a Jacobite stronghold. The Scots wanted James II restored to the throne and Scotland became convulsed by a series of wars against William. The Scottish Jacobites were finally beaten at Cromdale in 1690.
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