The Indian subcontinent was split between numerous rival kingdoms after the fall of the Gupta Empire around 550 CE. Throughout the rest of the first millennium CE, numerous smaller kingdoms fought for control of regional resources and trade routes. Many smaller kingdoms struggled for survival as borders and alliances frequently shifted. In the 9th century, three main regional empires, the Gujara-Pratihara Dynasty, the Pala Empire and the Rashtrakuta Dynasty, were vying for control of northern India in what became known as the Tripartite Struggle. At the same time, Hinduism had become the primary religion in India, edging out Buddhism and other previously popular religions such as Jainism. Numerous sects of Hinduism branched out across India, differentiating themselves through the emphasis they placed on the power of individual gods and varying aspects of Hindu teachings. These sects developed rivalries, gaining prominence in certain regions and kingdoms where they were endorsed by local leaders.
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