Flodden was the first battle in the British Isles that used significant artillery deployment, and the last in which a British sovereign – James IV of Scotland – was killed in combat. The Scots had the advantage in numbers and position, stationed above the English on the slopes of Flodden Hill. But James squandered this positional advantage with a chivalrically impeccable, but tactically inept, downhill charge into the marshes fronting the English lines. Firing downhill, the Scottish cannonade mostly sailed high, while both the English uphill fire, and more potently, their longbows, were highly effective. When fighting became close-quarters, English hooked bills and halberds proved more versatile than the longer Scottish pikes. James and a swathe of his nobility, who led the charge, were mown down. Among those slain were the Archbishop of St Andrews, and eleven earls including Montrose, Argyll and Bothwell. Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, was created 2nd Duke of Norfolk for his pivotal role in English victory.
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