The Congress of Vienna 1815

  On the eve of his invasion of Russia in 1812, the French military commander and emperor Napoleon was notionally at the height of his power, presiding over an empire of 130 departments and... Read More

The Danzig Corridor 1919–39

  Eastward settlement (Ostsiedlung) by Germans gathered momentum in medieval times, and was often through invitation of local rulers who valued the settlers’ industry, skills and martial... Read More

The Vikings and Normandy

  The Vikings were Norse seafarers who originated from Scandinavia and launched a series of sea-borne raids from the late 8th century onwards. Their reputation as fearsome warriors preceded... Read More

The Cold War in Europe 1945–68

After cooperating in the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union became antagonists. Immediately after the Potsdam and Yalta agreements in 1945, Stalin demanded... Read More

The Black Death Map 1346–50

The Black Death, which is believed to have originated on the Mongolian steppes, was a catastrophic outbreak of bubonic plague that resulted in an estimated 25 million deaths across Europe alone.... Read More

The Battle Of The Somme 18 November 1916

The Battle of the Somme (1 July–18 November 1916) was a joint British-French action to break the stalemate on the western front and achieve a decisive victory. Following a successful recruiting... Read More

Armistice Day 11 November 1918

On 21 March 1918, the Germans launched a devastating effective offensive on the western front, driving as deep as 37 miles (60 km) into the Allied lines in some places. French and American forces... Read More

Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941

The Japanese aerial attack on US shipping at Pearl Harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, was launched at 7.55am on Sunday 7 December. Devastatingly efficient, and apparently unexpected, it was... Read More

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