The battle of Rio Salado (1340) fought near Seville in Spain was a crushing defeat for the Marinids, the Moroccan dynasty that supported the kingdom of Granada, by the combined Christian armies of Portugal and Castile. It marked the final Muslim attempt to extend their control in European west beyond the enclave of Granada. This left the budding Christian nation states free to concentrate on fighting one another. The century began with rapacious rulers in England (Edward I) and France (Philip IV) asserting their dominance. Both expelled the Jews, and Edward extended his dominion over Scotland and Wales. Philip destroyed the Templars and effectively held the papacy hostage in Avignon. Inevitably, they brawled with one another: the Hundred Years’ War commenced between their successors in 1337. While Denmark disintegrated under Christopher II, Charles I unified Hungary in 1321. Meanwhile, the Holy Roman Empire became embroiled in a succession dispute between the powerful houses of Luxembourg and Habsburg, with Luxembourg prevailing (1328).
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