After plundering Flanders, the Vikings entered the kingdom of the West Franks in 885 and laid siege to the Seine, in the Paris basin. They sailed hundreds of ships, carrying thousands of Viking warriors to the fortifications around Paris. Duke Odo of Francia, who controlled the city, refused to pay tribute to the Vikings, who then besieged the city. Duke Odo, with only 200 men, managed to repel Viking attempts to scale the city walls by using hot wax and pitch. The Vikings assailed the city walls for a year, using catapults, battering rams and fire. Finally, they destroyed a tower and were given permission to sail through the city and raid the Marne Valley region. In 889, a further attack on Paris failed. The Vikings left Paris after the West Franks paid them a large sum of money.