German V1 and V2 Rockets waged a bombing campaign against London and areas in eastern England with the objective of destroying civilian infrastructure and instilling fear in the British population, ultimately reducing productivity of industries. They were designed as ‘retribution weapons’ for Allied bombing on German cities. The first V1 was launched against London on 13 June 1944 and by the end of the campaign 2,515 had successfully hit the city, causing 6,184 deaths. Due to its short range the V1 had to be launched from sites close to the Channel. As the Allies moved through Europe attacks became less frequent as launch sites were captured. The first V2 rocket came later in September and, due to its size, was able to carry a much larger payload. The V2 could be launched from further afield and was much harder to defend against than the V1 due to its supersonic speed.