The battle of Tours saw Charles Martel’s Frankish army confront the forces of the Umayyad Caliphate under Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, the Andalusian Muslims. The Umayyad army had made easy progress from Spain through southern Gaul, defeating Duke Odo’s forces in Bordeaux. Al Ghafiqi did not anticipate heavy resistance as he moved north, but Odo gave warning to Martel who lay in wait south of Tours. On 10 October Martel set up his forces in a defensive position on a hill with ample tree cover. Although estimates of the numbers involved vary, the invading army had a large heavy cavalry contingent whereas the Frankish army was mainly infantry. After a week of skirmishing, Al Ghafiqi grew impatient and launched an all out attack. The Franks held a tight defensive formation which proved highly effective at breaking up the cavalry attacks, killing Al Ghafiqi in a counterattack and sending his army into full retreat.