In the aftermath of independence, the westward expansion of the Union had yet to accrue the inevitability which marked the era of “manifest destiny”. Despite the massive territorial windfall of the Treaty of Paris, the new Republic remained hemmed in by hostile imperial powers, Spain and Britain, and the process of state formation was often hindered both by warlike indigenous populations and pugnacious citizens. Control of the Northwest Territory was not achieved until the Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794), when forces of a Native American confederation and their British allies were routed on a battlefield flattened by a tornado. Before admission to statehood in 1796, Tennessee briefly hosted the “State of Franklin” whose leaders sought to place themselves under Spanish rule before their round-up and arrest. Meanwhile, a site was agreed for a national capital under the Residence Act (1790). The District of Columbia created in 1801 on land ceded by the states of Maryland and Virginia.
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