The independent Republic of Vermont (1777–91) issued its own coinage and currency, and engaged in diplomatic relations with the Dutch, French and British before becoming the 14th state of the Union. The independent ‘State of Frankland’ was briefly declared in the western Carolinas in the 1780s before being suppressed: the contested area would be incorporated into the ‘Southwest Territory’ ceded to the federal government in 1790. This arrangement was part of a government mopping up operation on the western borders; Virginia also contributed to the Southwest Territory, while the Northwest Territory was comprised of cessions from Massachusetts, New York, Virginia and Connecticut. The cessions were followed by agreed limitation of borders and the ratification of the Constitution by the ex-colonial states (1787–90). Maine, although physically separate (and separately assessed in the 1790 Census), remained part of Massachusetts, and its border with British Canada would not be formalized until 1842.
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