The Toltec State 900–1200

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Map Code: Ax00850

The extent to which the Toltecs had dominion over an empire is a matter of dispute. An early ruler, Topiltzin, is reputed to have conquered Yucatan and, certainly the site of Chichen Itza on the peninsula has a strong cultural affinity to definite Toltec sites, like their capital, Tula. Their successors, the Aztecs, revered the Toltecs, who were renowned jewellers, metalworkers, weavers and builders; it is possible that they disseminated their skills widely, rather than expanded through conquest. The Toltecs do appear to have been fearsome warriors, wielding curved axes and atlatls, a dart-throwing weapon. They also practised human sacrifice on captives from vanquished tribes like the Huaxtecs. Tula appears to have been burned in the 12th century, or at least its palaces and temples, possibly following a revolt of the people. The last of the Toltecs seem to have resettled on the shores of Lake Texcoco.

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