Following previous Israeli clashes with Syria and Jordan, Egypt amassed troops near the Israeli border and ordered the withdrawal of the United Nations Emergency Forces in the area from 19 May. Following this escalation, the Straits of Tiran, separating the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea, were closed to all Israeli ships from 23 May, which massively curtailed Israel’s oil supplies. Finally, Egyptian Field Marshal Emer began planning for an attack on Israel. Israel gained knowledge of the plan and voiced its concerns to the US during an ambassadorial visit on 25 May. With Jordan signing a mutual defence treaty with Egypt on 30 May, Israel planned for a decisive air offensive against Egyptian air bases beginning on 5 June. Following a lightning attack that destroyed 338 aircraft and disabled the Egyptian air force almost entirely, Israeli ground forces gained control of the Sinai Peninsula by 8 June.
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