Following Saladin’s decisive victory at Hattin in 1187, the Kingdom of Jerusalem sans Jerusalem, was reduced to isolated pockets of coast round Antioch, Tripoli and Tyre. Three armies arrived at intervals in the Holy Land: Leopold V of Austria commanding the imperial German forces; King Philip II with the French; and finally, in June 1991, Richard I of England, who promptly managed to fall out with both the earlier arrivals. Leopold and Philip thereupon took their forces and left for Europe in July (although Philip left 10,000 soldiers to continue with the crusade). Richard managed to capture both Acre and Jaffa, but not Jerusalem, before his departure in October 1192. In 1197, the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI, declared a crusade, and managed to emulate his father by dying on his way to the Holy Land. But the German crusaders did capture Beirut, Gibelet and Sidon, reconnecting the Christian territories once more.
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