At the beginning of the American Civil War in 1861, the Confederacy consisted of eleven secessionist slave-holding states. Kentucky began the war as neutral, but came under Union control. Missouri began as a Union state, even though it was slave-owning and mostly pro-Confederate. During the war it split into two, with the north remaining part of the Union and the south voting to secede. In this state ‘brother fought brother’ with, from the beginning of the war, pro-Confederate guerrilla strikes taking place against Union forces. West Virginia separated from secessionist Virginia and remained loyal to the Union but, like Missouri, many supported the Confederacy. By 1865, the Confederacy gave up its remaining territories, with General Lee surrendering at Appomattox, Virginia, on 11 April and General Johnston surrendering at Raleigh, North Carolina, on 13 April. The remaining states, including Texas and Florida, were mandated to re-join the Union.
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