The New (or Neo) Babylonian Empire was created from the ashes of the old Babylonian empire, ruled by Assyrian kings. In 626 BCE, Nabopolassar, a governor of Babylonia, was determined to claim the title of ‘king of Babylonia’. He succeeded in overthrowing the Assyrian rulers and established himself as king. He ejected the Assyrian garrisons and annexed parts of the Assyrian heartland, conquering Assur and Nineveh. His son Nebuchadnezzar II perpetuated his legacy, ruling the New Babylonian Empire at its zenith, turning Babylon into a fortified city filled with temples and palaces. He is also thought to have created the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. When he died in 562 BCE, his son succeeded him, but was assassinated by his brother in law after two years. From 560 BCE, the empire began its decline, falling to the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BCE.
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