Edward III of England held a claim to the French throne in opposition to Philip VI, and both the Plantagenets and House of Valois laid claim to the duchy of Aquitaine. In 1337, when Philip confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine from Edward, the English king raised funds for a military invasion of France through a number of costly loans from lenders across Europe. The Breton War of Succession over the deceased duke of Brittany’s rightful heir provided an opportunity for Edward to form an allegiance and secure territory in 1345. After landing an army in Normandy in 1346, Edward won a series of important victories, including the Battle of Crécy, which established English rule in Calais. Edward’s son, Edward of Woodstock, later became known as the Black Prince due to his famous Chevauchées (horse charge) in southern France where he terrorized the countryside around Toulouse in 1355 and captured King John II of France at Poitiers in 1356.
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