The Hittites, an ancient Anatolian tribe, were near their nadir in 1400 BCE; after the death of Telipinu I around a century before their territories had steadily retrenched. To the south, the Egyptian Empire was at its zenith under the 18th Dynasty, but the Hittites were too parochial for this to signify: in their neighbourhood, the Mittani were pre-eminent. The Mittani were an Aryan people, who had migrated to, and taken control of, the Hurrian homelands and then extended their rule east to Mesopotamia and west to the Mediterranean at the expense of Assyria and the Hittites respectively. In the early 14th century BCE, Arzawa gained its independence from the Hittites, who were repeatedly marauded by the Kashka tribes to their north. During this period, even the Hittite capital, Hattusas, was sacked and burned, although there is no record of the culprit. From 1344 BCE, Suppiluliuma I would begin the Hittite resurgence.
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