The Muslim world (2000) is a vast region that stretches from northern and sub Saharan Africa, through the Middle East, Balkans, Central Asia, southern Philippines and into Malaysia and Indonesia in Southeast Asia. Major populations tend to be concentrated in arid zones, such as northern and sub-Saharan Africa or Kazakhstan, Afghanistan and Pakistan in Central Asia, or the densely-forested regions of Southeast Asia. In 2000, much of Central Asia was severely affected by drought, creating a humanitarian crisis. There was also flooding in low-lying Bangladesh, a marshy, sub-tropical country with one of the largest mangrove forests in the world. The Muslim lands that border the Persian Gulf are mainly arid, but in 2000 had huge reserves of crude oil, with Saudi Arabia the world’s largest oil exporter. In 2016–17, Saudi Arabia still pumps record amounts of oil, while Yemen has virtually run out.
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