The Galician campaign first demonstrated what the ensuing year would confirm: Austria-Hungary was a great power in name only, and its armed forces were by some margin the least effective of the major protagonists. In late August 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff von Hotzendorf ordered an advance into Poland, targeting the main Warsaw-Kiev rail link around Lublin. Expecting the bulk of the Russian forces to attack from East Prussia, he weighted his forces accordingly, and the initial engagements were in this quarter with the Austro-Hungarian forces coming out on top. In fact, the bulk of the Russian forces, under Generals Ivanov and Brusilov, attacked from the west. Heavily outnumbered, the opposing army was routed, and within days the whole Austro-Hungarian front had disintegrated. By the end of September, the Russians had taken Lemberg and advanced 99 miles (160 km) over a broad front, cutting off the fortress of Przemysl.
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