Upon the death, without surviving issue, of Amenhotep, the Egyptian throne passed in 1506 BCE to a senior military commander Thutmose I, the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. He almost at once faced a rebellion in Nubia, which he crushed, personally killing the rebel leader. He followed this with a series of campaigns in Upper Egypt, during which he extended his control as far south as Kurgus and the mouth of the Red Sea, securing Egyptian control of Nubia for the next five centuries. In the north he invaded the Levant region and subjugated, at least briefly, a large area of present-day Syria encompassing the River Euphrates. Along with military domination, Thutmose initiated many major construction and engineering projects during his 13-year reign. He greatly increased the navigability of the Upper Nile by means of dredging. At Karnak, he commissioned two colossal statues to symbolize the union of Upper and Lower Egypt. He initiated or augmented temple buildings at Abydos, Armant, Ombos, Memphis, Edfu, Semneh, Buhen and Aniba. And he was the first pharaoh known to have constructed a tomb for himself in the Valley of the Kings. By Thutmoses’ death in 1493 BCE, Egypt’s empire had reached its greatest-ever recorded extent.
— OR —