From the beginning of the 1914–18 conflict, central Paris was raided by German mono and biplanes. The first recorded air attack was on 13 October 1914 when two Tauben monoplanes dropped bombs in central Paris, causing little damage. Attacks escalated in 1915 when the Germans began using giant hydrogen powered, explosive filled, Zeppelin airships for raids. On 20 March 1915, two Zeppelins dropped 4,400 lb (2,000 kg) of bombs on central Paris, targeting commercial areas. The Zeppelins often missed their target and typical raids produced relatively small casualties. This was the case on 29 January 1916 when a Zeppelin attack killed 23 and injured 30. Anti-aircraft fire from the central fortifications succeeded in causing such severe damage that it crashed during its return flight. The silent 623 ft (190 m) long Zeppelins evoked extreme fear, causing riots. In 1917 the Germans replaced the Zeppelins with deadlier Gotha fighter planes.
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