In 1698 and 1699, Sweden’s neighbours agreed on a joint assault on their overweaning rival. Peter the Great of Russia, Augustus II of Saxony and Poland-Lithuania, and Christian V and his successor Frederick IV of Denmark agreed on a three-front assault. In the meantime Sweden negotiated the support of Britain and the Netherlands, who wished to end any conflict in the Baltic while they were involved in the War of the Spanish Succession. Aided by the Dutch and British navies, the Swedish fleet deployed a 10,000-strong army near Copenhagen. King Frederick IV was unable to defend his capital and Sweden’s first success in the Great Northern War (1700–21) was reflected in the Treaty of Travendal, which was concluded between King Charles XII of Sweden and King Frederick IV of Denmark. Under the terms of the treaty, signed on 18 August 1700, Denmark returned Schleswig to the duke of Holstein-Gottorp, who was an ally of Sweden, and agreed not to fight against Sweden – it was not until 1709 that the Danes re-entered the war, following Sweden’s defeat by Russia at the Battle of Poltava.
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