Pharaoh Shoshenk’s Palestinian campaign is conventionally dated to 925 BCE. He is thought to be the biblical pharaoh, Shishak. Although the biblical account was written some years after the events, the relief on the walls of Shoshenk’s Karnak temple, made in his 21st year, list about 150 sacked Palestinian (Israeli and Judean) cities. It is thought that Shoshenk decided to conquer and settle many of the cities in Judah and Israel, as he was not content with simply receiving tributes. He also sent strike forces into Edom, a trans-Jordanian territory annexed by King David of Israel. Advancing from Gaza, it was Shoshenk’s intention to control the international roads, including the King’s Highway, which were important trade routes. Shoshenk’s campaign was mostly bloodless and Jerusalem was taken without resistance. By the time of his death, the campaign was unfinished, but Shoshenk had made Judah into an Egyptian vassal state.
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