Between April 1919 and March 1920, the kingdom of Romania and the First Hungarian Republic were engaged in war. The war began after Hungary’s government, angered by the Paris Conference’s decision to cede Hungarian border territories to Romania, resigned. Bolsheviks briefly took over the government in March 1919; their belligerence acted as a catalyst for a Romanian offensive along the demarcation line. After Hungary surrendered, the Romanians withdrew their forces, having firmly secured both Transylvania and the new border with Hungary. In the interwar period, Romania was referred to as Greater Romania, because of the extent of its expansion. Despite fast economic growth, there were high rates of unemployment and social unrest, leading to the rise of the fascist ‘Iron Guard’. On 5 July 1940, Romania allied itself with Nazi Germany; in October German troops occupied Romania, as part of their strategy to create an unbroken eastern front.
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