The name Phoenix was suggested because the city in Arizona was founded on the remains of the Hohokam civilization and their canal networks. But its explosive growth (48,000 in 1930; 980,000 in 1990) derived from a more muscular harnessing of water: the Roosevelt (1911) and Coolidge Dams (1930). The early economy was based on 5 Cs: citrus, cotton, cattle, copper and climate, the last making it a major military air base in World War II. As a result, it developed a concentration of military supply industries and a large pool of skilled labour, which, in turn, nourished a hi-tech boom post-war through companies such as Motorola, Intel and McDonald-Douglas. Rapid suburban expansion followed, particularly northward, and the American urban trademark, racial segregation. In 1964, a reporter observed ‘Apartheid is complete. Two cities look at each other across a golf-course’. But Phoenix has also been distinguished by enlightened municipal planning anchored upon a network of urban villages (1979).
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