Having repeatedly failed to breach the Ottoman front, General Murray was replaced as Allied commander in Palestine by Field Marshal Allenby in June 1917. The crux points of his campaign were two enveloping manoeuvres, a year apart. In October 1917, the front extended from Gaza on the coast to Beersheba. Feinting an attack on Gaza, Allenby concentrated his forces around Beersheba, launching a frontal infantry assault to occupy the defenders while cavalry swept round the eastern flank. Taking Beersheba, Allenby swept west to occupy the now abandoned Gaza and north to take Jerusalem on 8 December. Now occupying a front line from north of Jaffa to the Dead Sea, Allenby marked time until the go-ahead for a final offensive push in September 1918. Feinting an attack along the Jordan valley, Allenby struck instead around Megiddo, and rapidly split, then routed, the Ottoman forces.
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