Between 1783–90, the US government ended the colonial practice of negotiating treaties with the Indians to acquire their land, instead they simply occupied Native American lands and any resistance was met by military force. In 1790, the federal government, alarmed by the violent opposition to their land grabs, revived the need for a signed contract where Native Americans were paid, in money and goods, for voluntarily ceding their land. In reality, this often resulted in land being sold to the government by unauthorized sellers. There were also many cases of Indian signatures being extorted under duress. Between 1783–1814, millions of acres of tribal lands were ceded in Georgia, the Mississippi Territory, Tennessee, Ohio and Michigan Territory. After the 1812–14 war, where many Indian tribes fought against the US, believing a victory would stop American expansionism, the US retaliated by making even more demands for tribal lands.
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