Alexander and Frederick the Great brilliantly exploited the military foundations laid by their fathers. The genius of Julius Caesar and Napoleon was nourished by the might and wealth of Rome and France. Of the iconic conquerors, only Genghis built from scratch, spending over 20 years bringing the warring tribes of Mongolia under his rule, before exploding in campaigns of conquest at all points of the compass. The skill and mobility of Mongol horsemen was legendary; their archers and lancers were devastating. By his death in 1227, his armies had conquered as far west as the Caspian, annihilating the Khwarizm Empire, and crushed the Chin and Xi Xia kingdoms of northern China. Under his son, Ogedei, the Mongols advanced into China, India, and eastern Europe, where they routed Christian armies at Legnica and Mohi (1241). After destroying both the Abbasid and Ayyubid caliphates, the Mongols finally found their nemesis in the Mamluks at Ayn Jalut in Syria (1260).
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