The varied climatic zones of the US is affected by latitude and geographical features. High elevation northern areas, such the mountain ranges in Colorado and northern California, have an alpine climate. The semi-arid and desert areas in southwestern USA have hot summers and warm winters, with summers like those of northern Africa. California’s climate has huge variations, caused by features such as latitude, elevation and proximity to the coast. Central California has a Mediterranean climate, while the climate to the north is like that of northern Europe in winter and southern Europe in the summer. The Gulf and South Atlantic region are humid and subtropical. Alaska in the far northwestern part of the USA has a sub-Arctic climate with winter temperatures akin to Greenland and summer temperatures equivalent to Moscow. Midwestern cities such as Chicago are as hot as Madrid in the summer and as cold as Moscow in the winter.
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