In 1790, although it was determined that all commerce with Native Americans, including land purchases, should be fair and under federal jurisdiction, hostility remained between Native Americans and the settlers. Between 1790–1832 many Indian treaties were signed under federal authority. However, some tribes felt their lands were ceded under pressure, creating internal tribal divisions, and resentment against the settlers. The Creek Indians ceded 24 million acres to Georgia in 1790–01, angering many tribal members. In Ohio, the Indian tribes had no control over the ceding of their lands, which were ‘handed over’ by the British, after the War of Independence. The Shawnees, allies of the British, felt ignored and cheated. They had many settlements in the Ohio basin and used the land to hunt buffalo. Angry, they launched brutal raids, countered by military reprisals, against the settlers. Similar cycles of violence between Native Americans and settlers recurred throughout the US.
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