The first large scale movement of the Jewish diaspora to the Holy Land in recent history began in 1882. Tsar Alexander II’s assassination in Russia in 1881 led to a severe crackdown on Jewish rights within the country, forcing many to seek refuge elsewhere. This started the first Zionist movement as groups such as Hovevei Zion, a conglomerate of smaller Jewish organizations, began to purchase land in Ottoman Palestine where Jewish immigrants who had been displaced from eastern Europe could live and work. This event is known as the First Aliyah, although there is dispute over the term. It was followed by the Second Aliyah between 1904–14 when another wave of displaced Jews from eastern Europe arrived in Palestine. Although these movements required substantial funding from wealthy benefactors such as the Rothschilds to continue, by the time of the Second Aliyah large settlements had been established and the Hebrew language had been revived.
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