Throughout much of the 9th and 10th centuries, Europe was raided and settled by a number of different societies on its periphery. Vikings launched raids across the sea from Scandinavia in the north, establishing settlements in Britain alongside the Anglo-Saxons in an area that became known as the Danelaw. They also established themselves in northern France alongside the Franks, starting the Norman settlement that would eventually spread across France, whilst Viking traders (Varangians) moved south into Russia and eastern Europe. In the east, the Magyars launched numerous raids all across mainland Europe and established Hungary against competition from the Franks and the Byzantines. Their expansion into Frankish territory was halted after the Battle of Lechfeld in 955. From the south, Muslim exiles from Spain secured territory in Crete in the 820s, establishing the Emirate of Crete, which engaged in frequent pirate activity. This, along with other Mediterranean territories, came under control of the Abbasid Caliphate.
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