After the third partition in 1795, Polish populations remained concentrated in the annexed territories and were keen to have their sovereignty restored. Many fought with Napoleon against Austria, Russia and Prussia, now a prominent German state, the partitioning powers. They believed that if they supported Napoleon they would (as a form of quid pro quo) be rewarded with a resurrected Poland. To some extent, Napoleon honoured this wish and, under the 1806 Treaties of Tilsit, the ceded Prussian lands (most of the partitioned central Polish provinces) became the Duchy of Warsaw. Although the constitution was created by Napoleon and headed by his Saxony ally, King Frederick Augustus I, the Poles controlled the departments (councils). After a French-Polish victory against Austria in 1809, West Galicia was added to the Duchy and by 1810 the number of departments had increased from six to ten. Wroclaw remained a stronghold of Prussian resistance, with German colonists, who had settled there during partition, openly revolting against the Poles.
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