After the defeat of Germany and the Paris Peace Conference, the League of Nations was established in January 1920 to strengthen worldwide security and provide a means of conflict-resolution. Former German colonial territories were ‘distributed’ amongst the allies by means of a series of ‘mandates’ under Article 22 of the League’s Covenant. The administration of these territories was pledged to be a ‘sacred trust of civilization’ to develop them for the benefit of their inhabitants. The western regions of German East Africa were incorporated into the Belgian Congo as Ruanda-Urundi (now Rwanda and Burundi), while the British administered the eastern region as Tanganyika (now Tanzania). The vast area of South West Africa (now Namibia), which had been administered by just 2,500 Germans, was invaded by the British and South African armies and became part of the British Empire. The German Protectorate of Togoland and German Kamerun were each divided into separate British and French administrative zones.
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