The One Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453) was a bitter struggle between France and England over territory and the French Crown. The English army had notable success at the Battles of Sluys (1340) and Crécy (1346), and at Poitiers (1356) they captured French King John II. The resulting Treaty of Brétigny (1360) gave the English Poitou, Guyenne (Aquitaine), Gascony, Calais and other territories in return for Edward III abandoning claims to the French throne, terms reinforced by the Treaty of Calais. In 1415, Henry V was victorious at the Battle of Agincourt and then conquered Normandy. In 1419, Burgundy became an English ally after the Dauphin assassinated the Duke of Burgundy. In 1420, the Treaty of Troyes between Henry V of England, Charles VI of France and Phillip, Duke of Burgundy, saw English occupation north of the Loire – the French had reclaimed most of Aquitaine – and Henry V’s heirs declared successors to the French throne. In 1422 Henry V and Charles VI died; Henry VI of England was titular king of France but the followers of the Dauphin proclaimed him, Charles VII, as the true king.
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