The final phase of the Allied offensive was particularly devastating for the German army because, after years of stalemate, their tactically successful spring offensives made victory seem possible. On 26 September 1918, after victories in Amiens, Arras and Bapaume, the French Commander-in-Chief, Ferdinand Foch, spread a three-prong offensive over the whole front. Foch used the Allies’ crucial advantage in numbers, weaponry and equipment to cumulatively overwhelm exhausted German defences. The recent addition of American soldiers, still fresh to combat, also helped. The northern and southern lines of attack produced rapid breakthroughs, with the German army in retreat. On 9 October, Cambrai was captured. The German garrison in Le Quesnoy were reluctant to retreat, but were finally forced out by the New Zealand Division on the 4 November. On 8 November, Sedan fell to the Americans. The German army crumbled and on 11 November 1918 conceded defeat.
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