The battle of Marston Moor (2 July) was a decisive defeat for the Royalist cause. It shattered the aura of invincibility of Prince Rupert of the Rhine, and established the military reputation of Oliver Cromwell. With the assistance of the Scottish Covenanter army, the Parliamentarians now held sway over the whole of northern England, formerly a Royalist stronghold. Combined with William Waller’s earlier victory at Cheriton (29 March), the Parliamentarians were now on the offensive on all fronts. But the Royalists counterattacked; King Charles himself prevailed at Cropredy Ridge, then pursued and defeated Parliamentary forces invading Cornwall at Lostwithiel (31 August). The situation in Scotland brightened for the Royalists with the exploits of the Marquess of Montrose who defeated Parliament’s Covenanter allies at Tippermuir and Aberdeen in September. However, the remaining Royalist territories were now isolated, and these reverses would provide Cromwell with the leverage to create the formidable New Model Army.
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